An introduction to object-oriented UX and how to do it

Well-defined leads to well-designed.

Object-Oriented UX (OOUX) fell into my lap a couple years ago during a brief Lunch and Learn at work. At the time, I was still getting my feet wet in UX, but I knew this OOUX stuff was on to something. I’ve since learned a great deal more and have designed an app with OOUX, and I seriously can’t imagine breaking into a new problem space without it.

A quick intro to OOUX:

OOUX is a method for structuring a problem space that emphasizes the objects, the things people interact with. Sophia V Prater, OOUX evangelist and teacher, gives the example of a coffee shop. If you were to enter a new coffee shop, what would you look for when first walking in the door? The menu, maybe a table, the register perhaps? You’re going to look for these things, these objects, before you even think about any actions you might take (how to order from the menu, how to sit at a table, how to complete your order at the register). Only after you get your bearings on the things available to you will you decide what you’d like to do with those things. The objects of a problem space are the things that users are there to interact with. Online environments are the same. When users first approach a new digital space, they’re also looking for relevant objects first. Where are the shoes? Where are the tickets? Where’s my playlist? It’s only after getting their bearings that they’ll start thinking about how to interact with those objects. Now imagine further. What if all the objects in this new coffee shop looked the same, some were even hidden in the backroom, and you couldn’t tell how to move from one object to the next? If that’s what our real-life situations were like, we’d hardly ever want to visit a new restaurant or store. Sadly, this is how way too many digital spaces treat users. Often, users visit apps that don’t prioritize the objects the users are actually visiting the app for, leading to disorganization, confusion, and frustration. If users are visiting your app for the objects, why not start designing your app around those objects? If we had to boil OOUX down to its simplest form, it would be “objects first.” This is exactly what OOUX does. It prioritizes the objects and, consequently, simplifies an app’s creation and design as well as its experience.

A breakdown of the ORCA process

OOUX has been around since the ’90s when it was called “modular design,” and it has since evolved, expanded, and been renamed. Even newer is the ORCA process Prater created, which maps out the entire OOUX framework and walks you through each round step by step. ORCA stands for Objects, Relationships, CTAs, and Attributes, and the process takes you through iterative steps for each of those categories, culminating in the sketching phase that brings it all together. As we walk through this next section, I’ll use examples as if our problem space is an app for a chain of coffee shops.

1. DISCOVERY: Explore and select possibilities.

A simple pixel cafe with the menus and drinks indicated as objects
  1.a: What objects are in this problem space? What are some instances of thoe objects? For starters, we know our coffee shop chain has many stores (our first object!). One instance of a store object might be called the “Atlanta Shop.” We know that the Atlanta Shop will have a drink menu and a food menu, menu items, and orders would likely come into play. 1.b: What are the relationships between those objects? A menu would have many menu items, but each menu item would likely belong to just one menu, and an order could include one or many menu items, etc. These relationships don’t just help the developers and designers conceptualize the problem, but they also inform the navigation, which I’ll touch on later. 1.c: What Calls to Action (CTAs) might users want to take with each object? Perhaps a menu item could be selected, ordered, recommended, rated, and favorited. Explore all the options here; you may uncover a need for additional objects like a comment or review. 1.d: What attributes will each object have? What core content and metadata will be attached to each object? “Core content” refers to the unique information attached to an object like its name, photo, and description. It’s the kind of information an administrator would have to type in when creating the object. Core content for a menu item could be a name, an image, and a price. “Metadata” refers to the information that won’t be unique but would come from a selection of options an administrator might choose from a drop-down menu. This is also the kind of information users will sort and filter by. Metadata for a menu item could be information like “caffeinated,” “seasonal,” and “hot”

2. REQUIREMENTS: Nitty. Gritty. Defining.

A pixel coffee cup gif with object requirement categories listed on the side
(It may feel monotonous to go through this step for every object and piece, but this is where many gems of information are uncovered. I gleaned mini insights in every area which brought about micro-innovations throughout my designs. Getting all of this information on paper also gets the entire team on the same page and creates valuable artifacts for newcomers.) 2.a: Think through and articulate how to define each object. Select a term the entire team will use and write out a definition. Detail why users need it, who will own it, what attributes does it have to have, what its purpose is, etc. Back to our coffee shop app, here’s a quick version of requirements for “menu item.”
  • Definition: A menu item is a consumable that guests can purchase
  • Instance examples: chai latte, blueberry lemon scone, decaf coffee
  • Purpose: Users visit coffee shops for community, ambience, and food and drink, but food and drink are the most important pieces that make it a coffee shop. Our online menu items make our business work.
  • Required attributes: Menu items must have a title, description, and image (core content). They must also have the following metadata: in stock/out of stock, food/drink/other, customizable/not customizable. If the menu item is a drink, here is additional metadata it will have: size, cold/hot, caffeinated/caffeine-free, tea/coffee/other. And here’s some extra metadata for food menu items: vegan/vegetarian/gluten-free/other, hot/not hot.
2.b: Define the finer details of your objects’ relationships with one another. What is the cardinality (how many of X object can be related to Y object and vice versa), mechanics (how will they be created, edited, deleted), dependencies (what will happen to related objects if a parent object is removed), and default sort/filters (how will the system list the objects by default). Here’s how this would look for a menu item.
  • Mechanics: Menu items can be created/edited/deleted by coffee shop managers and admins.
  • Cardinality: A menu item can be related to 1 menu, and a menu will have many menu items, roughly 10–30.
  • Dependency on host: Menu items will be contained in a menu (the parent object) and if the menu is deleted, the system should prompt the manager with the option to either delete the menu items or move them to a different menu.
  • Default sort/filters: Any menu items that a user has favorited will show at the top of the list, then drinks will show next by least to most complex (example: black coffee, decaf coffee, Americano, latte, cappuccino, frappes, etc.).
2.c: Break out the CTAs. Who can complete each action? Why would they want to? Where in the app will they see this CTA? I think the most popular actions for a menu item would be these three:
  • Add a menu item to the order: Users will want to do this when browsing. Their goal is to buy and enjoy the menu item.
  • Modify a menu item (adding whipped cream or substituting almond milk for cow milk, for example): Users will do this after adding a menu item to the order. Users will want to do this if they want or need customization or accommodation for their drink or food. Note: this CTA will only be available on customizable menu items.
  • Favorite a menu item: Users will do this while browsing to keep track of their favorite items.
2.d: Get ready to get up close and personal with your attributes! Write examples for all pieces of core content. List out every possible option for every metadata for each object. Indicate which attributes will be required and which will have conditional visibility. Define each objects’ stages, types, statuses, and states, if applicable (see below for examples). For our menu items, all core content and metadata will be required when applicable to the menu item type (see below for “type” examples). Only managers and admins can see item quantities, (e.g. “15 vanilla scones in stock”), but users will be able to see “out of stock” if true. Item quantities will be updated by the system and managers in real time, by the way.
  • Stage: This refers to when an object goes through progressive stages of a process. When an order is submitted, for example, it could go through the stages of “order received,” “we’re crafting your order,” and “order complete and ready for pickup.” These example stages would be seen by the user and employees, but other stages could be only for behind the scenes use.
  • State: A state is metadata determined by an action taken by the user. When a user “favorites” a menu item (the action), that menu item becomes “favorited” (the attribute). When a menu item is added to an order by a user (action), it becomes “selected for purchase” (attribute).
  • Status: Objects may have special statuses at different times like a menu item could be “featured” through the season. Starbucks’ pumpkin spice latte would be the perfect example if it were available throughout the year but was featured during autumn.
  • Type: “Type” refers to the different kinds there might be of an object. Menu items can be either a food type or drink type, for example, and there are pieces of metadata that are only relevant or food items (vegan/vegetarian/gluten-free) and some that are only relevant for drink items (caffeinated/caffeine-free, coffee/tea).

3. PRIORITIZATION: Cut the fluff and rank.

A pixel visualization of prioritization with menu item cards on the left and a prioritization matrix on the right
  3.a: Reduce your objects to what’s most important and then rank what’s left. We want the “lowest effective dose” of objects here, as Prater would put it. What can be cut, what can be outsourced to a different app, and which objects might be able to be combined? Could a menu special be downgraded from its own object to a regular menu item object, but have a special state attribute, for example? Instead of creating review or comment features for our coffee shop, we could let Yelp handle those things. 3.b: Prioritize the relationships your objects have between one another. What related objects will need to be seen first when you’re on the cappuccino detail page, for example? Should they see the parent menu that the item comes from first or maybe related menu items or even “items often bought together?” 3.c: Rank which CTAs are most important and how accessible they will need to be to users in different contexts. Which will need to be shown on an object’s list page? On its card? On its detail page? And which CTAs will need to be completed in a batch? Also write out whether the actions are MVP-critical, can wait until right after product release, are low priority, or need more research to even be included. Here I’ve prioritize our CTA examples from before:
  • Add a menu item to the order: Users should be able to do this from the list of menu items, and they should be able to add many menu items to the order at a time. Priority: MVP-critical.
  • Modify a menu item: Users should be able to modify a menu item from the item’s detail/ordering page and maybe also from the order cart page right before submitting the order. There should also be a prompt available at checkout asking if they would like to modify the menu item before submitting the order. Priority: MVP-critical.
  • Favorite a menu item: The button to favorite an item will need to be available while viewing a list of items and on the item’s detail page. Priority: low priority (nice to have).
3.d: Prioritize the attributes each object has. Which of these details are most important to users? When sorting and filtering, what will need to be visible from the list page, card, and detail page? Most likely, whatever is visible on the list page will also be designed on the card, and everything on the card will show on the detail page. Here’s a quick list of which menu item attributes I think matter most to the users, but this is a great place to bring in a real user’s perspective:
  • Title — most important, will show on list modules
  • Image — will show on card
  • Caffeinated/caffeine-free — will show on card
  • Description — will show on card
  • Hot/cold — will show on card
  • Everything else — will show on the detail page


Pixel gif of a woman sketching at a coffee shop
  Now that you have a discovered, defined, and prioritized map of your objects and all their pieces, you’re ready to put pencil to paper. Take the prioritized attributes into account and sketch out detail pages, cards, and modules of your objects. Consider where you can use modules or cards to represent the relationships between objects (as nested objects). How can you visually differentiate between your objects to minimize confusion? What related content might be on a landing page? Something I especially appreciate about OOUX is how it approaches navigation through objects’ relationships with one another. In OOUX, it’s especially encouraged to show related objects as nested objects, likely on detail pages. These nested objects will set up natural next clicks and will create a circular navigation among and between the objects. Starting the sketching phase with modules and cards means that you can plug in those mini-representations wherever you need to show nested objects. This process will save you time from having to redesign the same information again in different contexts.

Well-defined leads to well-designed.

“Well-defined leads to well-designed.” I think that’s the best way to describe the ORCA process. After all the work you spend on the objects and honing in on the fine details, the result is an experience that is easier to navigate and understand because it reflects real world spaces and objects. You’ll arrive at a digital experience with clearly defined objects that are easily distinguished from each other and an easy-to-follow navigation between objects that won’t lead to dead ends. I want to hear feedback from those of you who are new to UX and those who’ve been around UX for a while. Do you use similar methods? Do OOUX or ORCA sound like they could offer you something valuable? Personally, I can’t imagine not starting from these foundations, but tell me what you think.

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This article was originally published on Medium with the UX Collective publication.
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Lindsay Eryn Sutton